Millennium Project


Environmental Security: United Nations Doctrine for Managing Environmental Issues in Military Actions
by Joe B. Sills, Jerome C. Glenn, Theodore J. Gordon, Renat Perelet


A three-year international assessment of global changes conducted by the Millennium Project identified fifteen global challenges facing the world, reaching into most facets of change, from prospective water shortages to moral and ethical issues. Of the fifteen challenges, six are environmentally related. Environmental threats may well outweigh military threats in the future. This report is an investigation into the roles that might be required of the UN and related international organizations, as well as the conventions and protocols that might be involved in the resolution of future threats to environmental security.

Acknowledgments

The Millennium Project of The American Council for the United Nations University gratefully acknowledges the contributions of Tamami Onaka, Jay Austin, John McDonald, William Jewett, Elizabeth Florescu, Azusa Kubota, John Young, Joanie Newman, interviewees who are listed in Appendix A, and AEPI staff.

Free copies can be ordered from The Army Environmental Policy Institute; please contact John J.Fittipaldi <John.Fittipaldi@hqda.army.mil>.



Table of Contents

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

1. UN ROLE: ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF CONFLICT

1.1 Environmental Security in Doctrine
1.2 Environmental Security in UN Peacekeeping Operations
1.3 Environmental Consideration in Past Conflict
2. UN ROLE IN ENVIRONMENTAL SECURITY ISSUES THAT COULD LEAD TO CONFLICT

3. SCENARIO SKETCHES

4. FUTURE ARRANGEMENTS

5. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

APPENDICES

Appendix A: List of Participants
Appendix B. A Current Example of the UN's Role Evolved in Environmental Security: NATO’s bombing campaign in Yugoslavia
Appendix C: United Nations Environmental Mediation Program (UNEMP)
Appendix D: Web sites that have useful information related to Environmental Security and International Treaties, Conventions, and Protocols


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